Annex 1. Kazakh musical instruments


The most favorite and most common in two–stringed plucked instrument of the Kazakh people. Housing dombra is made of wood, the strings in the past were made of fine goat or sheep intestines, is currently out of line. During the archaeological excavations of the ancient city of Khorezm – terracotta figurines were found musicians playing on the two–jet instruments.

Tools, which were the prototype of the modern Kazakh dombra, were distributed to the Saks nomad tribes. In Kazakhstan, there are two main varieties of dombra – western and eastern, differing in form and structure. Western dombra is oval, three–dimensional shape of the body and a long, thin neck, which imposed 12–14 perne (frets). East dombra has a rectangular, flat body, short and wide neck, having from five to nine Perne. In East Kazakhstan preserved as three–jet dombra.

Having absorbed the suffering and aspirations of the people of wisdom, dombra truly universal – many generations kuishi created for her thousands kyuis. It is widespread in national life is essential attribute zhyrau, zhyrshi, akyns, folk–professional singers and composers – sals and sere.


The oldest stringed bowed instrument, whose body is made of a single piece of wood. In the past, strings and bow kobyz made of horsehair, and on the neck to hang the metal plate. The tool is also decorated with feathers owl. Rock paintings depicting kobyz dating IV–VIII century, have been found in areas of ancient and Ulytau Karkaraly. In the traditional view kobyz – shamans attribute associated with the name of the legendary musician Korkyt. Game it is attributed to secret, magical power. A rich overtone, lively and warm timbre kobyz resembles the human voice. Kobyz kui had a magical purpose – to influence the society, nature, animals and ancestral spirits. Repetition alone – the same intonation in kobyz kuis operably linked to a repetition of magical charms and spells. A tool similar kobyz exists in Kyrgyz – kayak, Mongols – hur, Altai (Oirats) – ikili and many other peoples of Siberia, Central Asia, the Volga region, the Caucasus and Europe. According to research scientists V. Bahmana (Germany) and S. Doncheva (Bulgaria) kobyz spread beyond the nomadic world of Central Asia and was the ancestor of all European bowed string instruments – violin, viola, cello and double bass. Sometimes kobyz called "kyl–kobyz". The prefix "kyl" ("Hair") in the name of the instrument appeared in the 30s. The fact is that during the so–called "Cultural construction" ancient instrument was subjected to processing – instead of natural hair strings were made of metal, has also become artificial – bow. As a result, rich in overtones, the speaker sound, becoming unnatural, has changed beyond recognition. In this context, the term "kyl–kobyz" represents the old, which is a real kobyz.


String plucked instrument, which is a wooden box with strings stretched. In the past, I made out of a hollowed piece of wood. The now widely in Khakases called "shathan" preserved in Tuvan – "Chadagan", etc. There is a legend 6 zhetygen origin. During jute father, who had seven sons, I have lost all, one after the other. After the death of each of them he pulled on one string on a piece of wood carved and served kui, which are known as the seven kyuis for zhetygen. In ancient times zhetygen, coaxing the spirits were playing before the hunt, which is the key to good luck. On zhetygen accompanied him Ancient poets’ storytellers glorifying the exploits of the glorious warriors.

Kamys syrnay

Reed wind instrument, made of reeds, in the form of a short 'a hollow tube. The apparatus and method of sound production on kamys syrnay identical to the popular jazz wind instrument – the saxophone.

Kamys syrnay with a sharp, shrill sound, able to imitate the cries of various birds and animals. This property is an instrument used by hunters. On kamys syrnay also performed folk melodies and tunes. Widely known Kazakh identical kamys syrnay Turkmen folk instrument – dilly, tyuyduk. As used in individual cases, since the Soviet period at the moment, none of the types of performance in Kazakhstan – solo, ensemble, orchestral, kamys syrnay widespread and has not received.


Wind instrument such as the flute egg–shaped, made of clay. It was found during excavations of burnt troops of Genghis Khan in 1220 the medieval town of Otrar. The reconstructed folklore researcher Bolat Sarybaeva in 1971, saz syrnay was introduced into the folklore and ethnographic ensembles. Tools similar to the saz syrnay, under different names there are many Eurasian peoples: svilpe – Latvians, Estonians Savi Peel, chopo choor y–Kyrgyz ungerek in Altai, and others.


Wind instrument such as the flute, made of reed, wood or silver. One of the most popular tools on the territory of Kazakhstan to the XVIII century, which is associated with many legends and stories. In the past, in an environment batyro'v, hunters and warriors possession sybyzgy considered mandatory. In Kazakhstan, there are two varieties sybyzgy associated with two performing traditions. In particular, oriental sybyzgy, unlike the west side, has a tapered, shorter in length and small diameter form. Sybyzgy under different names there are many Eurasian peoples from Mr. Kaval 'Hungarians, Bulgarians and Moldovans, Kura – Bashkirs, Garg tyuyduk – Turkmens, tsoor – Mongols, shoor – in Altai, choor – in Kyrgyz and many others. Currently playing on sybyzgy tradition revived in Kazakhstan. Sybyzgy part of the musical and ethnographic groups.


The word "syrnay" represent all musical wind instruments –saz sirnay, kamys syrnay, braid syrnay, Muiz, syrnay and others. Since the XIX century they began to designate the accordion. Outstanding Kazakh singer and composer Myra Shamsutdinova (1896–1929) sang and accompanied himself on accordion. On the accordion played Zhayau Musa. Traditions of epic singing with accordion initiated narrator Syrdarya school Nartai Bekezhanov (1890–1954).


Wind instrument such as the flute in the form of a soaring bird, related saz syrnay. It was made from clay. Uzkirika sound like the sound of wind, hence its name ("uzkirik" means "whistling wind"). Uzkiriku similar tool, much smaller in size, kept in Bashkirs. Tools close saz syrnay and uzkiriku as toys, whistles exist in the Turkic peoples of the Volga region. The practice of hunting: Kazakhs living in Mongolia, uskirik executes the application function. His whistling sound is hunting decoy for catching foxes.


Self–sounding metal reed instrument resembling a small lyre. With the game shankobyz applied to the mouth, which serves as a resonator. Different heights of sounds achieved change of the position of artist language. shankobyz Sound features a large number of overtones (overtones), which gives it a resemblance to the human voice, but also gives a lot of opportunities in onomatopoeia. Shankobyz manufactured as wood, bamboo, bone, under differences names common in many nations of Eurasia – maultrommel Austrians, Trump the Swiss, Deuce–harp in the English harp in Russian, jews harp from Altai and Kyrgyz drymba Ukrainians, Moldovans and Belarusians Mucuri from the Japanese, and others. In the traditional worldview shankobyz associated with spirits. In the past, when kamlanii– shamans when playing shankobyz skillfully imitated the sounds of nature. The rain, singing cuckoo, running horse, a woodpecker knocking noise of the wind, the murmur of the water, and others.


Three–stringed plucked instrument dombra type, much less by volume. Sherter housing made of solid wood, which is covered with leather, string – horsehair, either lived. According to legend, sherter played shepherds calling a sheep. His beautiful sound of birds flew and landed next to the musician. In the past, game sherter accompanied performance of epic tales and songs. Tradition games sherter most developed before the Revolution in the Semipalatinsk region, in the Soviet period has not received the recognition of the official ideology, so that was forgotten. Found during the excavation of the ancient city of Otrar sherter it was revived B. Sarybaeva. Currently, we changed the structure and appearance of the instrument – strings made from fishing line, and the neck is divided into frets. Reconstructed tool widely used in the ensemble practice. He was inducted into the many musical folklore–ethnographic ensembles "Otrar saz", "Zhetygen", "Sazgen" and others. Due to the discontinuity in the performance tradition in the Soviet era repertoire solo artists sherter currently consists of two surviving folk kui for sherter "Oi–tolgau" and Sal Smoking "written in notes researcher and performer Zamzagul Izmuratovoy. The majority of the works of the repertoire make arrangements dombra kyuis.