5 Orchestral thinking of the conductor

The history of orchestra is also history of conductor's art, history of separate collectives.

The conductor (from the French. – to operate, direct) – the musician operating collective during the learning and performance of the piece of music by means of the movement of hands.

The conductor carries out several tasks. The main objective – to set tempo and to specify the size. The size in music shows quantity of beats in a bar. (For example, a waltz – a ternary meter, and a march – four-submultiples).

It becomes a conductor's baton in the right hand, sometimes, however, and two hands at the same time. And here left and mimicry too, he specifies when to whom to enter with what loudness to play. The conductor usually costs a back to public, and here musicians during all concerts admire peculiar "theater of a mimicry and gesture".

Some modern conductors often do without stick. And their gestures can be freer.

On the panel before the conductor lies – the score (a full musical notation of all parts of orchestral instruments).

Parts of instruments of each group register one under another, since the highest sound of instruments and finishing with the lowest.

Transposition of band music for the performer on a piano is called a clavier.

Of course, conducting starts with the setting of the conducting apparatus is a gradual, consistent and systematic development with respect for certain principles, namely freedom of movement, clarity, feasibility, cost effectiveness, training and prevention, that is, delivery of dynamic nuances, phrasing, maintaining sound, functions, performance, content and meaning of the music.

Also in elements of the conductor's equipment, importance the bearing has appearance of the conductor.

The body of the conductor must be smart, express volitional activity, determination, in any case, the stiffness, i.e. the face of the head should always be addressed to the members of the orchestra. Stand must be straight (do not slouch) and is stable, right leg forward a little forward.

Of course the conductor – a positive example for students orchestral players.

Activities of the head-conductor require esthetic and historical knowledge, also diverse organizing, pedagogical, performing capabilities; and also availability of a will, ability to communicate with people, group [45].

The conductor has first of all before himself a large amount of identity – orchestral players whom he shall unite in single collective so that this collective began to sound under its management as well adjusted tool.

Therefore, considering specifics of conductor's activities, complexity of the task facing the head of orchestra, it is possible to claim that future conductor – the music teacher shall possess specific capabilities, broad musical and theoretical preparation and practical professional skills, and also knowledge in the field of pedagogies, psychology allowing to communicate professionally with group [45].

The conductor shall be, first of all, the good musician, have good hearing, feeling of a rhythm, theoretical knowledge, namely to be widely erudite person because conducting – one of the most difficult types of musical performance.

The activity of the conductor is to guide a large team where very important role is played by strong-willed qualities and temperament.

Key control orchestra is the conductor's device – hands, the conductor's person, the case.

Hands of the conductor work according to nature of the orchestral work, with its musical content. Expressiveness of the person and movement of the case considerably promote persuasiveness and clarity of gestures of hands of the conductor.

Operations of the conductor's device during execution кюя or works on a platform are always resulting of big preliminary work, long communication of the conductor with orchestra. Understanding orchestral players of a conductor's hand, ability of collective precisely and accurately to follow gestures of the conductor are an exponent of performing culture of orchestra.

On dress rehearsals and at a concert the conductor doesn't resort neither to instructions, nor to display by voice, a conductor's gesture supported with a speaking glance, general smartness of the conductor there is the equal using force during this period [44, c.109].

The orchestral performance has the distinctive features connected with special, thinking of the conductor and his musical activity. Each orchestra has the, individual style of thinking which is embodied in an individual manner of sound of its musical instrument – orchestra.

Conducting as a profession is a set of activities: interpretation, performance, management, rehearsal and organizational forming potential disclosure of internal energy of the conductor, the achievement of a goal, the realization of artistic ideas.

This complex is in the process of performing music creates a tumor – artistic and creative interpretation of musical compositions, that is, actualizes the musical-creative activity of the conductor. Touching the conductor's musical and creative activities.

V. L. Zhivov notes several it important components which can be expanded a little:

  • abilities to concretize in external expression the understanding of the piece of music, its images, a form, a system, features of style;
  • ability to enter collective into a condition of creativity, to carry away it, to force to execute the work as it is interpreted by the head;
  • manifestation of conductor's musical and creative individual style of thinking and activity;
  • ability clearly and brightly to show the performing intentions, to achieve their realization on rehearsals, and then to show top of the mastery during concert performance [12].

Professional activity of the conductor is constructed on mental processes and the realizing psycho physiological motive and information mechanisms interconnected with them, consists of a number of stages:

  • The choice kuis or works which has to correspond to the tasks facing collective – training, developing, bringing up etc.;
  • The preparatory work of the conductor over a performing plan including creation of general idea about music and the main artistic images, profound immersion in musical fabric and the art analysis of the work, formation of a performing plan, an individual interpretation of the composition and scheduling of its realization;
  • Realization of a performing plan in rehearsal work begins with the first acquaintance of orchestra with kui or the work which plays nearly a crucial role for all further work on it; further the conductor, recreating the musical composition orchestral collective, tries to obtain technical and art compliance it to the representations. In rehearsal work the conductor can experiment in the choice of means of performing and musical expressiveness which will help the conductor to reach "reference" sounding of the work;
  • The concert performance of works realized in reproduction of a performing plan, demanding extreme concentration of physical and spiritual powers, concentration, will. "During the concert – Sh. Myunsh wrote, – it is necessary to bring all feelings to extreme tension. In it the main mission of the conductor" also consists [32].

In the setting of a concert of the mental activity of the conductor occurs on the background of the active performance of a musical work, within tight deadlines, thereby creating a permanent stressful situation in connection with the impossibility of error correction. At this point, the conductor is in terms of the contradictions between management and creativity. Creativity and execution control are closely, positively affecting the final result – the creation of an artistic interpretation of a musical composition.

Formation of the conductor-orchestral player is accompanied by development of specific informative mental processes which are closely connected with future professional work and activity of the conductor.

Knowledge of surrounding reality begins with feeling and perception, further passes to understanding and musical thinking which considerably expands knowledge space by an exit out of limits of sensory perception. Specifics of thinking gain in musical activity a peculiar character which is defined by reflection in musical images of reality at the level of the art generalizations which are closely connected with an emotional condition of the personality.

Musical thinking – the process reflecting in consciousness generalization and reconsideration of vital impressions and interaction of the person with the phenomena of musical reality. Intonational perception (essence) of music by means of which means of musical expressiveness reveal acts as a fundamental principle of musical thinking, the maintenance of musical composition, style of the author, performer, and an era is understood [11].

Efficacy requires thorough knowledge of musical material, his understanding and conscious management of performance, activity of gesture (conducting) is based on the manual equipment through which the musical movement, the musical image shown in typicalness of gesture and actions of the conductor is transmitted.

Musical transformation of reality in the mind of the musician forms a specific way of thinking beat – orchestral thinking.

G. L. Erzhemsky wrote: "... performing creativity – a kingdom of an intuition and figurative thinking. The creative act proceeding in the conditions of concert performance is under construction generally on the basis of the unconscious sphere of the mentality representing "incubator" of the new ideas. It is the main storage of the richest individual life experience of the personality".

Thinking of the conductor, based on a sense of intuition, is understood by us as the ability for quick finding of the correct solution of the problem without lengthy reasoned and convincing arguments. Orchestral creative thinking is the active, internal self–awareness of the musical and artistic concepts, aesthetic senses, incorporating sound creativity will with the aim of mastering a specific situation.

In the course of preliminary work on the score in consciousness of the conductor there is a search of the relation to the musical text, the most important and significant parties of material come to light. Formation of an artistic image takes place on the basis of mechanisms of internal hearing. The famous conductor A. M. Pazovsky claimed: "Only that conductor who until direct reproduction of music is able to listen and hear freely it the internal hearing who is able to think completely of it of the score, intoning about itself all prisoners in it richness of means of expression..." [11].

As the conductor Oscar Fried spoke – it is necessary to be born with the heart capable to perceive the thinnest musical impressions, it is necessary to cultivate the mind capable to realize these impressions into the ideas and it is necessary to have a firm hand to transfer these ideas to orchestra.

The key moment in correctness of conductor's gesture is existence of a prevention element in it. Only the combination of precautionary and main gestures does conducting effective and clear. Thus, a basis of the technology of conducting is set and interrelation of precautionary and main gestures.

Precautionary gesture we call an upbeat or a wave. The main gesture noting the beginning of playing is always preceded by the warning gesture – the upbeat specifying to orchestra the breath moment that is the simultaneous introduction of orchestral players in much depends on that, how it is clear and clear the conductor showed to orchestra the breath moment. Namely from clearness, clarity, timeliness of conductor's gesture the exact, simultaneous introduction of orchestral players depends. Naturally, in gesture character of music, nuance which the beginning кюя or works is executed, and that is especially important – tempo has to be reflected.

During the rehearsal period the conductor, establishing tempo for кюя or works can apply various receptions. For example, before a hand wave, the conductor can show tempo easy percussion in a palm, or verbal instructions with distinct gestures.

All actions of the conductor in the course of performance or works, have to be vigorous, exacting.

The main conductor – the will that is integral for the management of the orchestra, the understanding of the ideological and artistic content of works of kui or make gestures convincing conductor and orchestra – emotional, inspirational, that is, the conductor must see and hear, must have quick reflexes and be decisive, to know the art of composition, nature and volume of instruments to be able to read the score and, moreover, to have a special talent [43].

Expressiveness of face and body motion significantly contribute to the credibility and clarity of the hand gestures of the conductor. Action conducting device during the execution of the kui or works on stage are the result of big preliminary work, prolonged contact of the conductor with the orchestra. Students–the orchestra conductor's hands, the ability of staff to accurately and clearly to meet the requirements of the conductor are indicative of the level of performing culture of the orchestra.

During the performance of the orchestra on the stage, the conductor's gesture seemed to confirm all the requirements of conductor put forward to them before the group in the rehearsal period.

During rehearsals, hands, body, eyes, face, conductor of the most active. Gestures in this period are often greatly emphasized, exaggerated. They can be either wider or more dramatic in nature, exaggerated showing of any single element of performance. In addition, the conductor can go beyond the rules of conducting, using gestures, most convincingly and clearly confirming his verbal instructions. As you teach orchestra the works of many management tools used by the conductor at the initial sessions, gradually lose its necessity, the behavior of the conductor becomes more focused.

And, at last, on dress rehearsals and at a concert the conductor shouldn't resort to verbal instructions, or display by voice.

The main force affecting this period is the conducting gesture, backed up by expressive eyes, the overall smartness of the conductor.

In order from the first steps firmly and accurately determine the desired the author of the pace, the conductor is obliged first of all to form a clear idea about the main features and character of the work, performance and learning of which it is going to lead.

Soloists – singers and instrumentalists – is the middle and the front of the stage and placed so as to slightly turn your head, you can see the baton.

The conductor must exercise the greatest care that the musicians tuned up.

The work on kui or work that needs the utmost respect to the composer, to the author's text is important in each moment, each beat of the music to feel the integrity of the kui or work, and its sound perspective all of this will enable the conductor to relate the dynamics and the overall level of the sound of music in General [47].