1 From history of formation of orchestra

"Fans and experts on music
aren't born, and become ...
To fall in love with music,
it is necessary to listen first of all to it"
Dmitry Shostakovich

Orchestra – the numerous collective of musical instruments performing the works which are specially intended for this structure.

Depending on structure orchestras have various, expressive timbre and dynamic opportunities and carry different names:

  • symphonic orchestra (big and small);
  • chamber;
  • wind;
  • orchestra of national instruments;
  • variety;
  • jazz.

All know that the word "orchestra" arose in Ancient Greece. The verb "orkheo" meant – "I dance", and orkhestro Greeks called the semicircular platform of theater on which, making the rhythmical movements, the chorus sang the parts. Through tens of centuries in Europe orchestra began to call the room in theater where musicians accommodated, and later – ensemble of musical instruments and performers on them.

The modern orchestra originates from the 16th century when composers wrote pieces of music for musicians in general. Due to the development of instruments, orchestras up to the end of the 18th century were, as a rule, string. During a baroque era the orchestra couldn't be presented without harpsichord, quite often the lute, and mandolins were a part [49]. Development of orchestra was formed within centuries.

In new conditions it is necessary that each instrument and all orchestra in general sounded strongly, brightly and in expressive way. The requirement it concerns all groups of orchestra. Usually we call participants of orchestra "artists of orchestra", "orchestral musicians" or just "orchestral players".

The major role is made by contact of the conductor with orchestral players (collective).

If the band is solid, if it is motivated by a single desire as much as possible to fulfill the requirements of the conductor, it can do wonders. Therefore one of the main challenges facing the leader of the orchestra is the coordination of individual artistic aspirations of the band members and the direction of their creative efforts in a single direction – in other words, the establishment of the performers of the creative and business contacts.

Of course, for some it is possible to almost immediately, for others this component conductor's activity remains difficult art, acquired with experience. Contact, relationship, relationships with a few other people in any activity – a phenomenon very difficult, especially in a conductor. Among the factors contributing to the establishment of a contact, you can call the head of the creative appearance and his musical and human authority, natural talent and artistry, experience and, of course, teaching abilities.

The object of the impact of the conductor is the person's mind, heart and soul, and it brings the conductor's work with pedagogical and educational. And the educational side of the conductor, pedagogical creativity has a lot to do it especially in emotionally-communicative sphere related to the direct interaction of the teacher and students [12, p.21].

Understanding the psychological state of the student – the artist - and a precondition of perceptual and communicative abilities.

The ability to express their feelings and self-control are treated as communication skills, and to expressive.

Nevertheless, a fundamental principle of any musical performance is a musical text kui or work, without which it is impossible performing activity. The fixed in musical notation, it requires not just literacy reading and guessing, transcripts of the author's intentions, as well as those aspects of his music, which he may not be aware.

Modern folk orchestras, both professional and amateur, for the most part have the same instrumental composition: family dombras – tenors, basses, dombra, kobyz, baskobyz, sherter, syrnay (accordion), three-stringed domra, various percussion instruments. For example, musical instruments orchestra of Kazakh folk instruments are divided into several groups: plucked strings, bowed strings, reed wind instruments, drums, keyboards, etc. For plucked strings are sherter, dombra, domra prima. For string bow include orchestral instruments such as the kobyz, baskobyz, dombra-bass. Reed woodwinds - shankobyz, syrnay (accordion). Woodwind instruments – oboe, flute. Percussion instruments - cymbals, drums, tambourines, triangles, cymbals, castanets, xylophone, vibraphone, bells, wooden boxes, etc. [7, p.161-176].

Musical instruments of the Kazakh people have very philosophical, technical and artistic capabilities and represent original phenomenon in the world music culture. Is inextricably linked to its development with the spiritual life, practical activities, aesthetic and moral principles of the general of the Kazakh people, they express the richness of his inner world, inexhaustible optimism, intelligence, depth of feeling, the special features of the particular nation. They were under the power of execution of the most diverse kyuis, works – from simple tunes, dancing to the complex of original musical compositions. Folk art, as a form of direct communication with human music, acquired with a special meaning: "Revealing the very process of the formation of a musical composition, it brings up the musician on the direct sense of inner organic links that exist between the individual elements of music. [27]

Activities of orchestras of folk instruments since their creation is considered as an important part of education, education of the young generation and education, as a means of bringing them to the cultural heritage.

A key role in the performances of the orchestra is given - conductor. The quality of the orchestra depends not only on the sound of instruments, but also on how performers are to each other and to your supervisor how similar their aesthetic needs, interests, motivations, aspirations; on what the creative, moral, aesthetic atmosphere in the team, as is one of their understanding of the requirements of art.

Some believe that conducting an orchestra – it's not art that taught him there was no need, and you can just stand in front of the team and limit simple timing, showing hand elementary conductor circuits of the executable.

Others defend the view that the conductor must be born and no training will not replace natural gift, prove the opposite – that it is impossible to learn conducting. The fallacy of the opinions and other shows life itself.

I think that only hard work can make a person a true artist and a musician.