Music dictionary

a sarrella (a cappella, ital.) – Choral singing without instrumental accompaniment. Firmly established as far back as the Middle Ages (in the cult music), this style was later widely used in the works of many composers (choirs Bortniansky, Tchaikovsky, Taneev, Bartok, Shostakovich, Sviridov). Singing and sarrella characteristic of folk music.

accolade – bracket (straight or curly) or a vertical line, which combines several staves. Accolade is used in the notes to piano, organ, harp and other instruments, as well as scores.

act – finished piece of theater work (. Drama, opera, ballet, etc.), separated from the preceding and following parts of the break (the name comes from the Latin astus – action).

acoustics – a branch of physics that studies sound effects (Greek asustikos – related to hearing). Musical acoustics examines the nature muzykalnogo sound and music system and build. Under the acoustics mean the nature and quality of the hearing in any environment.

accent – allocation, underline a single sound or chord by its accents are indicated by different characters:>, V, sf, etc. These signs are put on (a) of the note or chord to which they relate...

amati – a family of Italian violin makers. From the 2nd half of the XVI century. throughout Italy began to be famous violin masters of Amati family, has long lived in Cremona. Their work eventually formed the classic type of tool that has been preserved to this day. Violins and Cello created by the most famous masters of the Amati family – Nicolo (1596–1684), there is still not enough, and they are valued particularly highly. It is the most complex of N. Amati violins design art apprehended A. Guarneri and Stradivari AG.

intermission – break between the acts of a theatrical performance or a part of the concert (from the French entre – between, aste – act, action). Intermission is also called the orchestral introduction to one of the acts (except I) in any form theater presentation –. Opera, drama, ballet, etc. (the orchestral introduction to Act I has different names – overture, prelude, introduction, entry). Shirokoy famous are the symphonic interludes in operas "Carmen" by G. Bizet, "Lohengrin" by Wagner et al.

Armstrong Louis Daniel (1900 – 1971) American trumpeter and singer, one of the founders and major representatives of the art of jazz. The game on the tube captured self. Already at the turn of the 20-ies. he became a member of the first Negro jazz bands in New Orleans. Subsequently, he worked in jazz orchestras of Chicago, New York. In 1946 he organized a jazz ensemble "All Stars Louis Armstrong", toured with the team in more than 25 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America. Unsurpassed trumpeter, Armstrong repeatedly won top awards at numerous competitions and festivals. Perfectly mastered the Negro folk style of singing and enjoying the amazing gift of improvisation, had no equal, and as a jazz singer. Armstrong was also the author of other blues and jazz songs.

artist – musician (singer, instrumentalist, conductor), has been acting on the opera stage and the concert stage; in the broad sense of the term referred to all the artists of artists, including composers.

auftakt (auf it – above.) – Swing, pre-flapping gesture momentum, specific conductor's gesture, anticipating and organizing its performance in relation to tempo, dynamics, stroke, start, end, Fermat; singing well – showing the inhalation before the sound attack. Auftakt– most important part of the conductor's art.

great opera – many act monumental opera, in which the personal drama of the characters played out against the backdrop of major historical events. It features an abundance of scenic effects, romantic pathos, and lush ornamental. In these operas involved considerable performing compositions – choir, ballet, big orchestra. Genre grand opera originated in France in the 1st half of the XIX century. Typical examples of this genre created George. Meyerbeer ("Les Huguenots", "Prophet").

military orchestra – a brass band, a part of the military units.

debut – the first public performance of the actor on the stage, or concert stage.

deca – part of the body of stringed musical instruments, employee resonator, sound amplifier (from the German Deske – cap). Many strings (. Violin, guitar, dombra, etc.) there are 2 decks – upper and lower, NJ; they are interconnected sidewall. There are tools on one deck, such as the banjo. The deck at the piano is a shield, glued from smaller plates and inside the tool body under the strings.

detashe – reception games stringed instruments (violin, cello, and others.). Artist retrieves each note a separate movement bow, changing its direction (the French detacher – separated).

jazz – kind of music, mostly amusement, dancing character. The first jazz orchestras ( "jazz bands") emerged in the late XIX century. in New Orleans (USA), but the general public their art became known only from 20–ies. XX century. From that time it dates back the history of modern jazz. Many of its features (improvisation, increased emotional performance, rhythmic sophistication) jazz borrowed from Negro folk music, received the Americas peculiar refraction. Fresh, original art of the New Orleans Jazz Pioneers (so–called hot jazz –. «Hot» Jazz) in the 20–ies. quickly replaced the "commercial" jazz Broadway. In the following decades jazz has given numerous branches and schools ( "Swing", "bebop" style of "progress", and so symphojazz. D.), Put forward the major composers (J.. Gershwin, Ellington D., L. Armstrong) and artists (singer E. Fitzgerald, B. Goodman, clarinetist, pianist Art Tatum et al.) Jazz are inherent features of the easy genre that often masks its artistic identity. In the USSR, jazz became popular since the mid 20–ies. The founder (though not the first-born), this trend should be considered as "Tea-jazz", organized in 1929 by the outstanding Soviet singers LO Utesov. Closely linked over the years.

range – the sound volume of a musical instrument or voice (from the Greek dia pason chordon – through all the strings). To specify a range of values is enough to mention only the lowest and the highest of the sounds that are available to this musical instrument or voice.

divisi (Italian "divided") – a term applied, in my scores and points to the fact that the party is the same type of instruments in the orchestra (eg violins) should be divided into two or more independent parties. To cancel divisi used word unison (t. E. Monotonously together) non divisi.

Dixieland – name jazz ensembles that emerged in the 1910s. in the United States and consist exclusively of white musicians (Dixieland name, which literally means in English "Dixie Land" comes from existed in the US southern states of the country names). Such ensembles playing jazz so-called New Orleans style, characterized which were collective improvisation and simple accompaniment coupled with a sharp rhythm. These ensembles at the turn of the 20's. We received wide spread-of in Europe. Absorbed many techniques European someone composition techniques art collectives of this kind subsequently moved mostly to execute the dance (or entertainment) music.

conductor – musician, leader of the artistic team (French diriger — control, manage). To convey the author's intent with the utmost care, to give a clear interpretation of the performed music, the conductor must perfectly master the technique of conducting, is free to read the score. Your tasks it performs with the help plastic techniques-gestures that regulate the scale, indicates the tempo, Intro orchestral groups, soloists, etc. of the conductor depends on the nature of the interpretation of the music: he could reveal the contents of the score, to emphasize it has some features and to obliterate the other, thereby making the work, or more dramatic, or more lyrical, etc., Acute hearing, excellent sense of rhythm, good musical memory and an exhaustive knowledge of the properties and possibilities of tools, a common culture of quality, which is unthinkable without a genuine conductor. Widely known, many conductors of the past, among them a number of prominent composers: K. M. Weber, F. Liszt, F. Mendelssohn, H. Berlioz, R. Wagner, G. Mahler, R. Strauss, Rachmaninov, etc. Genuine flowering of the art of conducting came at the end of XIX—1st half XX century, when there was a galaxy of talented conductors.

conducting – art collective management of music (orchestra, ensemble chorus). This art has a long history. Even in ancient Greece choir leader he beats time, stamping his foot or clapping hands. In Roman Sho1a Santorum (Singing School), founded by Pope Gregory the Great in the VI., The choir used to control certain movements of the hand. In XVII-XVIII centuries function conductor performing musician, who played on the harpsichord or organ. Sometimes the conductor's guidance produced leading violinist orchestra. At the beginning of the XIX century. was conducting an independent art form. Perform successfully in this field composers (Weber, Mendelssohn and others.) Paved the way for the formation of a new type of a professional conductor. Gradually approved and new way of conducting, preserved to this day: the conductor becomes a person not to the public, and the orchestra (first did Wagner) and orchestral controls "mechanism" with the wand (priority in this area belongs to the German violinist and composer L. Spohr). Conducting – special discipline in music schools and conservatories.

Brass Orchestra – an orchestra consisting of wind instruments (mainly copper) and a group of percussion. Indispensable parties are saxhorn brass band, cornet, French horn, trumpet, trombone and other brass instruments; number of drums - large and small drums and cymbals. Brass Band is often increased by the inclusion of a group of wooden instruments: flutes, clarinets, oboes sometimes, bassoons. The number of performers in a brass band can be small (12-15 members); large brass bands combine ¬ are up to 100 musicians. With a strong and vibrant sonority, a brass band is indispensable when playing outdoors during the holidays, parades, demonstrations and so on. N.

winds – musical instruments in which "sounding body" is a column of air enclosed in their casing (pipe). Timbre and sound output in-tools for depend on the shape and length of the body, the material from which they are made, and a method of picking. Wind can be subdivided in the woodwinds (flute, oboe, clarinet, etc.) And brass instruments (trumpet, French horn, trombone, and others.). For brass are also some keyboards (eg, organ, accordion, accordion): in which a column of air is caused to oscillate by means of bellows or special mechanical devices. Many folk instruments – flute, bagpipes, zurna, Hornpipe, etc. — also belong to the brass instruments.

genre – historically constituted a kind of music, is usually determined by various criteria: the nature of subjects, means of expression, composition, artists, etc. (French genge – type manner)... It is generally accepted to subdivide the main music genres such as the symphony, opera, chamber, song, and so on. N.

instrumentology – section of musicology that studies the origin and development music tools, and their structure, acoustic, musical timbre and expressive features.

instrumentation – creation tool "dress" any orchestral works (symphonies, operas, concerts, etc.). When writing music instrumentation, usually is an integral part of the creative process: in the words of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, she – "one of the sides of the works of the soul." The golden age of the art instrumentation reached in XIX-XX centuries. (Berlioz, Glinka, Rimsky-Korsakov, Wagner, Debussy, Ravel, Stravinsky). The instrumentation is also known as transcriptions of his or someone else's work (e.g., piano) for an ensemble composition. Musician, instruments other people's work, must not only be familiar with the expressive tools and resources to take into account the possibility of their conjunction with each other, but also to penetrate deeply into the creative style of the composer. These qualities have allowed Rimsky-Korsakov, and later Dmitry Shostakovich's opera orchestrate M. Mussorgsky and Alexander Glazunov – the overture to the opera "Prince Igor" (which he remembered from piano playing A. Borodin).

chamber music – instrumental and vocal music, designed to perform in a small room (by Italian samega – room). Initially, in the XVI century. Chamber called secular music, contrasting it with the church. Nowadays chamber music (duets, trios, quartets, etc. Ensembles, works for various instruments, songs, lyrics, and so on) Opposed symphonic, choral and theatrical music, designed for a large number of artists.

chamber ensemble – not a big band playing chamber music. Chamber ensemble called work also written for such a group.

chamber orchestra – not a big orchestra, usually composed on the model of orchestras of XVIII century, which included, as a rule, stringed bow instruments (violin, viola, cello, double bass), a series of wooden and copper (mostly flute, oboe, horn) and harpsichord. The basis of the repertoire of instrumental music XVII – XVIII centuries, as well as works by contemporary composers, written specifically for this composition. The general famous are the Zagreb Radio Chamber Orchestra, the ensemble "Virtuosos of Rome" (playing only the music of the Old Italian masters), Lithuanian Chamber Orchestra, Chamber Orchestra "Moscow Virtuosi" chamber ensembles Kiev, Minsk, Tbilisi, Riga and others.

luftpause – a short break in the sound of music performed like a little sigh, breath (from the German Luft – air). In musical notation luftpause sometimes denoted by a comma.

manual – the name of the keyboard on the organ, harmonium, harpsichord. These tools, in contrast to the piano, have 2 types of keyboards: manual – manual keyboard (from the Latin manualis– manual) and keyboard for the feet – ne-given (from the Latin pedis – the foot). Manuals – they can be from 2 to 7 – are placed on the terrace–performing console, one above the other. Each keypad has its timbre and dynamic capabilities.

musical hearing – ability person to perceive "musical speech" and be aware of its expressive figurative sense. This ability is based primarily on the ability to distinguish and reproduce the relative height of musical sounds. The development of the relative ear achieved active listening to music, playing musical instruments, as well as special training ear training. Less common are the perfect pitch would be more correct to call the absolute pitch memory for: people with such a hearing, just know the height of each individual sound, without comparing it with any other. For the development of a musician is very important inner ear, t. E. The ability to internally hear the music and the ability to mentally play it by reading notes.

nuances – a set of different kinds of shades used in the performance of a musical work (French Nuance – shade). Many nuances – dynamic, rhythmic, expressive – semantic – are indicated in the text by the composer of the work (in this case is usually used Italian terminology: dolce, rallentando, morendo, etc.).

ostinato – repeatedly iterative melodic or rhythmic turn. In foreign music XVII–XVIII centuries. frequent ostinato in the bass voice – basso ostinato.

handling – in the broadest sense any change (or rethinking) music format, pursuing a purely creative or performing or educational purpose. Common type of treatment – to the tune of instrumental accompaniment or choirs.

opera – kind of theater art in which the stage action is closely fused with the music – vocal and orchestral (Italian Orega – essay). Contemporary opera is a complex synthesis of the arts; in their organically together diverse artistic mediation: solo and choral singing, various ensembles, symphony orchestra, the elements of fine arts (scenery, costumes, etc.); often introduced to the opera ballet scene. The first operas were created in Italy at the turn of XVI– XVII centuries. (The authors – J. Perry, C. Monteverdi, etc.).

opera ballet – Opera ballet scenes occupy the same important place as the vocal. Opera-ballets were distributed in France XVII— XVIII centuries ("Gallant India" Rameau, etc.) are occasionally found, and at a later time ("Mlada" by Rimsky-Korsakov).

оpera buffa – the Italian variety of comic Opera (Italian buffа — comic). The heyday of Opera Buffa — XVIII — beginning of XIX century Thanks to the fun, entertaining stories (mostly from urban life) and melodious music close to folk songs, a genre of Opera Buffa were popular among the democratic strata of the population. Unlike comic operas in Germany, Austria, France, Russia, the Opera Buffa was absent conversational scenes, instead they were widely used recitative. The most prominent authors of operas-Buffa — John. Pergolesi ("the Servant mistress"), D. Chimarosa ("the Secret marriage"), j. Paiziello. In the nineteenth century tradition of Opera Buffa developed by George. Rossini (Il Barbiere di Siviglia), Donizetti ("don Pasquale"), j. Verdi ("Falstaff").

opera seria – widespread in XVII–XVIII centuries. genre of Italian opera on a mythological or historical subject (Italian seria - serious). In music, opera is dominated by virtuoso solo singing equipped with rich and diverse adornments; chorus and ballet were absent. The greatest masters of opera seria – A. Scarlatti, GF Handel.

operetta (musical comedy) – musical–stage work Comedy content with vocal and dance scenes, accompanied by the orchestra and conversational episodes. As an independent genre, the operetta emerged in France in the mid-nineteenth century and were in the nature of topical satire (these are, in particular, operetta by J. Offenbach). Viennese operettas are stronger lyrical beginning, melodies close to the Austrian and Hungarian folk music.

opus – a term used when the sequence numbering of the composer's works. The Latin word opus can be translated as "work", "work", so in Russian, instead of the term opus (abbreviated PR.) often use the word "essay" (abbreviated Op.). Sometimes are might encompass not one but several works, for example, 12 easy pieces for piano. "Children's music" Sergey Prokofiev will be issued under one or. 65.

speaker – multipart vocal-symphonic work for soloists, chorus and orchestra (from the Latin оrаtio — oratorical presentation, rhetoric) written in drama and performed in the concert hall. Oratorio usually consists of choral episodes, symphonic fragments and completed the vocal numbers (arias, ensembles, recitatives). From the cantata it is significance of meaning, more developed plot, scale forms. However, many works of contemporary music, the terms "cantata" and "oratorio" are applicable to the same extent.

organ item – long or withstand multiple repeated bass sound; against the background of a "pedal" (sometimes call organ point) regardless of the bass is a movement of the upper voices and change chords. The most common organ-point is the tonic or dominant fret. Sometimes organ item is found in the middle and even the upper voice. The role of the item can perform chord.

orchestra russian folk instruments – the orchestra, consisting mainly of domras and balalaikas, but also incorporating harp, zhaleykas, horns and other instruments of national origin. In addition, the composition of these bands often included flutes, oboes, accordions, drums, etc. the organizer of the first in Russia professional Russian folk orchestra had a virtuoso balalaika player V. V. Andreev, and now this orchestra is named after its founder.

orchestra – a large collective of musicians-instrumentalists, performing works specially designed for this composition. Sometimes the orchestras are composed of homogenous instruments (e.g., the orchestra of Bayan-players), but more often they are made up of different instrumental groups. Depending on the composition of the orchestras have different expressive, timbral and dynamic possibilities, and are known by different names.

the orchestra pit – a special room for the orchestra in the theater, located in front of the stage. Located below the level of the orchestra, the orchestra pit is fenced off from it a small barrier.

orchestration – transcription of any musical work for orchestra. It should be noted that although the orchestration is essentially boils down to instrumentation, these concepts correctly delineate orchestration — a translation into the language of the orchestra of any of the instrumental pieces, orchestration — process of a specific embodiment in the tone of "the outfit" works intended for orchestra. Examples of orchestration can serve many orchestral versions of piano pieces: "Hungarian Rhapsody" by F. Liszt, "Pictures at an exhibition" by M. Mussorgsky, "Islamey" by M. Balakirev.

reject – temporary switching-harmonic motion from the scope of the main key to another. In contrast to the modulation, the deviation does not fix a new tone, and is a milestone for such a consolidation or a short episode on the road to return to the main key.

full score – musical notation of polyphonic music works for choir, orchestra or chamber ensemble, which brings together the party of individual voices and instruments. Party located in the score line by line, one above the other (Italian ragtitura – sharing, distribution). In modern scores set a specific order of the votes: in the choir at the top of women's voices are placed at the bottom – for men; symphony – for groups (from top to bottom: woodwinds, brass, percussion, strings). If symphonic works involved soloists or chorus, their games are located on lots of stringed instruments (Located in the same way the party and the opera scores). The scores for the other compositions (pop orchestra, wind instruments, orchestra of folk instruments) is usually applied the same principle: the top recorded instrumentals higher register, at the bottom – lower.

partу – part of a musical work, instructs the individual voice, an instrument, as well as a group of similar voices or instruments (from the Latin rags - part). Party, for example, called the musical-theatrical role of a protagonist (the party of Boris Godunov, the Snow Maiden, Carmen in the opera, and so on. N.). The string quartet distinguish Party 1st violin, 2nd violin, viola, violoncello; in a symphony orchestra – the party of individual instruments or groups (eg, 1 party violins, basses, etc.). The term "party" also refers to the sections of the sonata form (the main party, the linking party, and so on. D.).

position – hand position when playing a musical instrument, easy to extract a number of sounds of any register. Changing positions is associated with the movement of the hands on the keyboard (keyboards), or along the neck (stringed). The term "position" is used most often in relation to a string bow (cello, violin, etc.).

music program – instrumental music (most often – a symphonic), which is based on the program, a particular story. Software product or is reflected in its name, or is presented in a special preface literary comments. plot source can be historical tales and legends (Symphony "Ilya Muromets" Glier), fantastic fiction ( "The Sorcerer's Apprentice" Duke), literary works (Symphony "Manfred" by Tchaikovsky, "Faust Symphony" by Liszt), images, inspired by fine art ( "Pictures at an exhibition" by Mussorgsky), landscape sketches ( "The Enchanted lake" Liadov).

development – section of sonata form, its dramatic center; It is a comparison of the clash and the development of those set out in the exposure. This section is under construction freely without the established norms.

resolution – the transition is not sustainable in a stable sound frets, support. In harmony resolution called transition dissociating in consonant chord.

downbeat, powerful moment – the first beat is metrically reference. At a constant clock rate of the share is the strong continuity of the metric pulsation. The complex and mixed bars (size) distinguish the relatively strong proportion (the third quarter in the amount of 4/4). Often, especially in the classical and romantic music, a strong shares of highlights various means: dynamic accent, the advent of a New Harmony, melodic apex, etc.

symphony – a term denoting the highest degree of generalized philosophical reflection of reality in the musical arts. Being derived from the term "symphony," Symphony is a concept not only wider, but also combines the philosophical and aesthetic features. This concept is not identified with the symphonic genre; its scope covers all relatively large shaped product in which the one-piece, deep-plan disclosed in a sequence of movements and conflicts clash of images. Symphony as a category of musical thinking first proposed Asafiev. He owns several definitions symphony. In one of the early articles he identified symphony "musical continuity when no element is conceived and perceived as independent from the rest."

orchestra – the most sophisticated and rich in expressive possibilities of the orchestra, common in contemporary musical practice. Large symphony orchestras there are more than 100 musicians. Timbre and dynamic capabilities symphonic Orchestra extremely large and diverse, in that he is rightly considered the top winning musical performance culture. Symphony Orchestra was formed over the centuries. Its development took place a long time in the depths of opera and church ensembles. Such groups in the XVI– XVII centuries. They were small and heterogeneous. It is composed of a lute, viola, flute and oboes, trombones, harp, drums. Gradually the dominant position won stringed bowed instruments. Place viols took violin with their more mellow and melodious sound. By the beginning of the XVIII century. they have completely dominated in the orchestra. United in a separate group, and wind (flute, oboe, bassoon). From the church the orchestra moved into a symphony trumpet and timpani. Indispensable party was instrumental ensembles harpsichord. This orchestra is characteristic of JS Bach, GF Handel, A. Vivaldi.

symphony – in the modern sense is a work for orchestra, written in the form Sonata cycle (Greek symphonia — harmony). Meet the Symphony in the extended cycle (6–7 parts) and incomplete, until one movement. Wide popularity enjoyed by many of Haydn's symphonies (over 100), by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (about 50) Beethoven (9).

syncope – shift focus from strong beats to the weaker: the Term "syncope" comes from the Greek word up core — pass anything. With the constant flow of music on the strong beats of the measure have focused sounds on the downbeat — accented operated or stand, and pause. Syncope re-wearing a rhythmic emphasis on a weak part, and this creates a rhythmic interruption, introducing the music, the tension, the urgency. Usually syncope moreover, it was emphasized that enhances its impact. If in polyphonic music in one voice have syncopation, and the other not, then on the downbeats remains the focus (see example). The resulting roll of the accents (on syncope and on the strong beat) also emphasizes the urgency of syncopation.

soncerto grosso (concerto grosso, Italian – large orchestra) – virtuoso orchestral work in the form of the old suites, in which a group of solo instruments "compete" with the whole mass of the orchestra. Group solo instruments called сoncertino (small live band), the entire mass of the orchestra – ririeno (full) or tutti (all). The basis сoncerto grosso genre put Italian composer A. Stradella (1642– 1682); the highest development of this genre was in the works composers XVII –XVIII centuries. (Corelli, Vivaldi, Bach, Handel).

scene – a specially equipped part of the theater space designed for performances of artists: singers, dancers and other performers. The word "scene" is also referred to as part of the act or pattern of music and stage performance (opera, ballet, and so on. P.), which is a relatively complete fragment.

tutti – execution of a piece of music by the entire orchestra, choir. The beginning of this fragment

temp – speed (Latin tempus – time). The rate works depends on the character, mood, and content. The right pace – an important condition for expressive performance; significant deviation from the correct tempo leads to a distortion of the product.

fermata – mark in musical notation indicating the executor on the need to extend the sound of the chord, pause. Fermata long sustains. However, this value can fluctuate depending on the artistic intent of the work and shaped the values of the musical phrase

harmonics – a light, whistling overtone, which can be obtained on string instruments. With a weak, gentle touch to the string. They are somewhat similar to the sound of old flute, which, by the way, and was called "flageolet" (French flageolet – flute). There are natural harmonics extracted an open string, and artificial who get on a shortened, finger pressed against the string. Possible harmonics and plucked string instruments such as the harp. The peculiar, not rich sonority of vibration harmonics is usually used as an expressive color effect.

music library – a collection or storage of records, CD – ROM drive and tape films and tapes with music recording.

grace notes – melodic embellishment consisting of one or more sounds and anticipating any sound ringtones (German Vorschlag – THE previous shot). Portrayed grace notes of small faces. There are 2 types of grace notes: the long (or not crossed) and short (crossed out). The long grace note is executed through the duration of the note before which it stands, and usually takes half of its duration. A short grace note, unlike the long, borrows only a small part of the duration of the previous (or subsequent) note.

fragment – an excerpt (from the Latin word fragmentum – chip). Fragments from operas and ballets are often found in the concert programs.

phrases – one of the elements of musical form. The so–called melody, which expressed a more or less complete musical thought (Greek phrasis – expression). Usually the phrase is composed of 2 motifs of the smallest units of melody, non–finished musical content. The volume of phrases from 2 to 4 cycles.

phrasing – clear, artistically meaningful allocation of musical phrases (or other similar constructions) in the performance of a musical work. The main means of expressive phrasing and articulation are shades of execution.

caesura – a small, barely noticeable break (like breathing translated), separating one from the other segment of the melody. The word "caesura" comes from the Latin caesura – dissection. Caesura is the main means of phrasing: dismembering melody into phrases, they contribute to a clear perception of the music. To certain extent caesura play music the same role in human speech played punctuation. Caesura marks the end of the league, sometimes familiar V or point of musical line.

score reading – play score symphony, opera, vocal and instrumental, choral and chamber works of the piano. The same name is a practical subject matter in the music schools. The purpose of the discipline is to develop a holistic coverage skills (horizontally and vertically) score text. To read the scores need to know ways to write lots of instruments and singing voices, especially the use of different keys, to be able to transpose the party strings and wind instruments, and so on. D. Specific difficulties in reading scores associated with the crossing of voices, high–altitude location of the parties, the need to identify the main voice, define and implement a common channel duplicate batch (when playing many scores, especially symphonic, inevitable loss, for exactly all the votes cannot be played in practice). The ability to read music is first necessary conductors, composers and musicologists.